Cocoa can boost memory in older people, study says

Chemicals in cocoa can boost memory abilities in older people, a new study suggests. 

US researchers found flavanols – plant chemicals that are abundant in cocoa beans – improved performance in a list-learning task for people aged between 50 and 75.

Flavanols belong to a group of compounds called polyphenols, which are also abundant in red wine, tea, olive oil, onions, leeks, broccoli and blueberries. 

Researchers advise caution, however – to experience the memory benefits you’d have to eat 10 Mars bars a day.

Popular commercially available chocolate brands like Mars are ‘not a reliable source’ of flavanols, according to one expert, although flavanols do tend to be abundant in dark chocolate. 

Flavanols are ‘bioactive food constituents’ that protect against cognitive ageing, enhance cognitive performance and boost blood flow to the brain, studies suggest.

A diet supplemented with cocoa flavanols – naturally occurring compounds found in cocoa beans – may improve performance on a specific memory task, researchers report. Their study was in part funded by Mars Inc, which makes the Mars bar and many other popular chocolates

‘Now that we are living into our nineties, an emerging field is looking into what the right diet is for an ageing brain,’ study author Scott Small, a professor at Columbia University, told the Times. 

‘I’d like to think there’s a way to tailor a diet to include flavanols, which are found in many foods.’ 

Other research has credited flavanols with cutting the inflammation linked to heart disease, and with reducing the odds of dangerous blood clots.

They are also said to help keep diabetes and high blood pressure under control. 

Dr Susan Kohlhass, director of Research at Alzheimer’s Research UK, who was not involved with the study, pointed out that Mars bars are not the best sources of flavanols in the supermarkets. 

‘Chocolates are not a reliable source of flavanol compounds and this study does not suggest that eating chocolate is good for our cognitive health,’ she said. 

Dark chocolate (pictured) is a source of flavan-3-ols, compounds which are known to boost health

Flavanols are a group of chemical compounds found in many different food products, including green tea, muscadine grapes, dark chocolate (pictured), blueberries and wine


Researchers from the US wanted to see if a sub-group of flavanols, known as flavan-3-ols, could boost a person’s immune system to help fight coronavirus, and focused on the Mpro enzyme. 

‘Mpro in SARS-CoV-2 is required for the virus to replicate and assemble itself,’ said study author Professor De-Yu Xie. ‘If we can inhibit or deactivate this protease, the virus will die.’ 

The study, published in December in the journal Frontiers in Plant Science, found the flavan-3-ols can bind to Mpro, preventing its function and therefore hindering its ability to replicate and spread.

‘Green tea has five tested chemical compounds that bind to different sites in the pocket on Mpro, essentially overwhelming it to inhibit its function,’ Xie said. 

‘Muscadine grapes contain these inhibitory chemicals in their skins and seeds.’

Writing in their study, the researchers said: ‘These nutraceutical compounds and extracts of green tea, grape, and cacao can be utilised to interfere the devastation of SARS-Cov-2’.

Sadly for chocolate lovers, the chocolate’s high fat and sugar content means it should be eaten in moderation as part of a balanced diet.

Previous research has already linked higher dietary intakes of flavonols with reduced risk of developing dementia – the ongoing decline of brain functioning.

A 2014 study by Professor Small’s team, also backed by Mars Inc, found dietary cocoa flavanols reversed age-related memory decline in healthy older adults.

For this 2014 study, 37 healthy volunteers, ages 50 to 69, received either a high-flavanol diet or a low-flavanol diet for three months.

With the world’s population ageing, researchers wanted to replicate their initial findings at greater scale. 

The researchers recruited 211 healthy people aged between 50 and 75 for the new trial, which lasted for 12 weeks. 

At the start and end of the study, participants undertook a series of cognitive tests to assess their thinking and memory and a subset of the participants were given a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan to measure blood flow in the brain. 

During the trial, the participants were divided into four groups and given one of three different levels of a supplement containing cocoa flavanols – ‘low intake’ (260 mg per day) ‘medium intake’ (510 mg a day) and ‘high intake’ (770 mg a day).  

Some participants also received a placebo (0 mg of flavanols per day) as a baseline.

They then were tasked with three different tests related to memory and brain function – a list-learning test, involving learning different letters in sequence and relaying them, and a list-sorting test, involving sorting images of objects, like banana and elephant.

Example of the neuropsychological tests used to assess cognitive performance, including (a) Object-Recognition test (Modified Benton recognition task), (b) List-Learning memory test (Modified Rey auditory verbal learning test), and (c) List-Sorting task (List sorting working memory test from the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery)

Example of the neuropsychological tests used to assess cognitive performance, including (a) Object-Recognition test (Modified Benton recognition task), (b) List-Learning memory test (Modified Rey auditory verbal learning test), and (c) List-Sorting task (List sorting working memory test from the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery)


Drinking cocoa can increase your mental agility thanks to the presence of flavanols – chemicals that are abundant in cocoa beans.

UK and US researchers found healthy adults performed better on difficult cognitive tasks if the participants had consumed a cocoa drink containing high levels of flavanols.

After drinking flavanol-rich cocoa, participants produced a faster and greater increase in blood oxygenation in the frontal cortex – a brain region that plays a key role in cognition and decision-making – that helped them complete these tasks.

Flavanols are antioxidants and are abundant in tea, red wine, blueberries, apples, pears, cherries, and peanuts, as well as in the seeds of the cacao tree – cocoa beans.

By enriching supermarket cocoa with flavanols, food producers could help us increase the brain-boosting plant nutrient in our diet.

Read more: Drinking cocoa could increase your mental agility

The third, newly-developed object-recognition task was specific to a region of the brain called the dentate gyrus (DG).

The DG is in the hippocampus and is thought to play a major role in episodic memory formation.

The diet supplemented with cocoa flavanols seemed to improve performance only on the memory task specific to learning a list, the team found. 

There was no effect of 12 weeks of flavanol supplementation on blood flow to the DG, the region of the brain the researchers had identified in advance of the study. 

‘Flavanol intake did not improve performance on the object-recognition task, the study’s primary endpoint, failing to replicate our previous findings,’ the researchers say in their paper, which has been published in the journal Scientific Reports.  

‘Object-recognition and list-sorting performance did not correlate with baseline diet quality and did not improve after flavanol intake.  

‘However, the hippocampal-dependent list-learning performance was directly associated with baseline diet quality and improved after flavanol intake.’

The findings suggest cocoa helps older people to recall information in their short-term memory, but less so for quickly identifying visual similarities between objects and patterns.  

Dr Kohlhass highlighted the need for longer large-scale studies ‘to fully understand whether a diet high in these flavanols could boost cognition in old age’ and pointed out that the team effectively failed to replicate their findings from 2014.  

‘We also don’t know how meaningful the improvements measured in the tests used here would be for people in their daily lives,’ Dr Kohlhass said.  

‘While the researchers found that by the end of the study, those on a high-flavanol diet performed better in a list-learning task compared to the placebo group, they did not find a relationship between flavanol intake and performance on two other cognitive tests, one of which was the primary endpoint for the study.’  

Another limitation were the fact the team used cocoa flavanol supplements provided to participants in capsule form, rather than pure cocoa.  

Dr Kohlhass couldn’t say whether a diet high in cocoa would have any effect in either preventing or delaying the onset of dementia from the study’s findings.

‘Continued investment in research is crucial to find ways to protect the brain and reduce the risk of diseases that cause dementia,’ she said.

‘Although there’s currently no certain way to prevent dementia, research shows that a healthy lifestyle can help keep our brains health as we age. 

‘A healthy diet, regular exercise, not smoking, and keeping blood pressure and weight in check can all help lower the risk of dementia.’  


For years we’ve been told dark chocolate is better for us. But scientists have good news – they’ve found a way of making milk chocolate healthier (File photo)

For years we’ve been told dark chocolate is better for us. But scientists have good news – they’ve found a way of making milk chocolate healthier (File photo)

For years we’ve been told dark chocolate is better for us. But scientists have found a way of making milk chocolate healthier.

Dark chocolate, which usually has a more bitter taste, contains phenolic compounds which can act as an antioxidant. 

It has anti-inflammatory properties and can lower the risk of cardiovascular disease.

In 2020, researchers working for the US government have found how to incorporate these benefits in milk chocolate by adding peanut skin extract – usually leftover when peanut butter and sweets are made.

This raises the antioxidant levels while maintaining the chocolate’s sweet flavour and creamy texture. 

The team from the US Agricultural Research Service ground up the skins into powder, extracted the phenolic compounds and then combined it with a food additive. 

Adding the peanut skins to milk chocolate could give the same wellbeing boost at a fraction of the cost of dark chocolate, which is more expensive than milk varieties due to its higher cocoa content.  

Lisa Dean, the project’s lead investigator, said: ‘Dark chocolate is thought to be healthier as it contains high levels of compounds called polyphenols.

‘These compounds are also responsible for the bitter flavor.

‘Dark chocolate is also lower in cocoa fat and sugar than milk chocolate.

‘Most people prefer milk chocolate because it is sweeter, not bitter. It also melts in the mouth easier and has more pleasing ‘mouthfeel’.

‘Dark chocolate has a hard texture and melts at a higher temperature.

‘This product has the potential of providing consumers with the same level of polyphenols as dark chocolate but without the less desirable characteristics.

‘Peanuts skins are very inexpensive as there are usually just pelleted for animal feed or dumped in landfills.

‘There are some patents already in place for using nuts skins, including peanut skins as a food ingredient which are owned by Mars, Inc.

‘If some processor wanted to scale up the process and use the ingredient it could one day appear in retail stores.’

In fact, many of the taste testers preferred the milk chocolate with the peanut extract added. 


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