Archer underwent surgery on his right elbow in May and the England fast bowler had said he was prepared “to sit out the summer” to be fully fit for the T20 World Cup and Ashes later this year.
But he made his return for Sussex at Canterbury, recording figures of 0-20 from three overs against Kent.
Archer is part of the Southern Brave squad for The Hundred, which begins on July 21.
England are then in Test action against India in August and September, with the first of five matches at Trent Bridge on August 4.
Archer missed two Tests and three ODIs in India during the winter because of his long-standing elbow issue.
With Archer in the side, Sussex beat Kent by four wickets to qualify for the Blast quarter-finals.