Lingard is expected to be a surprise omission when Gareth Gareth Southgate cuts his initial 33-man squad down to 26 players on Tuesday afternoon at 5pm BST.
The 28-year-old scored nine goals on loan at West Ham from United in the second half of the season and returned to Southgate’s squad for the World Cup qualifiers in March.
Greenwood had been expected to make the cut after a superb end to the season with United but the club said the 19-year-old is suffering from “an underlying injury that also kept him out of the Under-21 European Championship in March”.
A United statement added: “Mason’s club appearances were managed carefully to maintain his availability through the intensive 2020/21 Premier League and Europa League schedules.
“But a further spell of tournament football would not be beneficial and Mason will remain at Manchester United to recuperate and prepare for pre-season training.”
Greenwood’s withdrawal and the omission of Lingard could benefit Aston Villa’s Ollie Watkins and Arsenal’s Bukayo Saka, who was listed in the provisional squad as a forward, despite being able to play at full-back and in midfield.
The fitness of experienced pair Harry Maguire and Jordan Henderson are the biggest issues for Southgate as he prepares to name his squad after this afternoon’s final training session for tomorrow’s friendly against Austria in Middlesborough.
Liverpool’s Henderson has not played for over three months but returned to training ahead of schedule on Friday, while United centre-half Maguire missed the end of the season with ankle ligament damage.
Leeds’ Kalvin Phillips has also been carrying an injury, while the England manager’s selection process has also been severely disrupted by United, Man City and Chelsea reaching European finals.
Southgate has been without 12 players for training this week, although the remaining United quartet of Dean Henderson, Maguire, Luke Shaw and Marcus Rashford were due to join the squad at Middlesborough’s Rockliffe training ground today.
The seven players who featured in Saturday’s Champions League Final do not arrive until Saturday, the day before England’s second warm-up match against Romania at the Riverside Stadium.
All six cut players are therefore set to feature in both friendlies and some could remain with the squad on standby up to England’s first match against Croatia at Wembley a week on Sunday.
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Liverpool’s Trent Alexander-Arnold, one of four specialist right-backs in the squad, is the highest-profile player in danger of the axe – a consequence of England’s remarkable strength in the position.
Newly-crowned European champion Reece James and Kyle Walker both came through the Champions League Final unscathed after hugely impressive seasons and offer extra versatility by dint of being comfortable at centre-back. Kieran Trippier has also enjoyed a successful season by helping Atletico Madrid to a shock title win.
Southampton midfielder James Ward-Prowse is in danger of being cut, with Henderson and Philipps both training over the weekend.
The three new call-ups to Southgate’s initial 33-man squad – Sheffield United goalkeeper Aaron Ramsdale and centre-backs Ben Godfrey and Ben White of Everton and Brighton, respectively – can also expect to miss out.